This map shows the proportion of foreign-born to the total population by country from 1918 to 1998. Routes of voluntary migration are shown, indicating the types of migrating groups.
If so much movement has happened in just the last 100 years, imagine the changes that have occurred over the millenium.
Source: Philip’s Atlas of World History
The choice of the 13 marker profile is the result of scientific research going back more than a decade. It was determined in the early 1980’s that there were locations in the human genome that are highly polymorphic. These locations (loci) contain many alleles detected initially as restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and later as short tandem repeats (STRs). Using population genetic principles, it was determined that a standard set of 13 genetically independent loci was sufficient to provide suitable information regarding biological relationships and to uniquely identify an individual (except for identical twins).
Genetic markers used to determine ancestry occur in different forms. Some genetic markers can establish maternal mitochondrial DNA) or paternity (Y-Chromosome) lineage where there is an unbroken chain in the pedigree. Such markers are valuable in resolving ancestry issues, but any break in the pedigree can cause difficulties. For example, the Y Chromosome is inherited from father to son. Any generation where there are no male offspring, the Y Chromosome is not passed on. Likewise, the mitochondria is inherited from mother to offspring. Any generation where there are no female offspring, the mitochondria are not passed on.
The country match is determined using a population genetics equation known as the Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equation. It is used to calculate the frequency of occurrence of your genotype (genes present at a locus) with databases from different populations. As an example, data from four populations for the D2S1338 locus are shown. All four of the populations have alleles 15 through 25 in their database, but the frequency of occurrence of each allele differs among the populations. For example, allele 16 occurs at a frequency of 21.52% in population 1, 19.08% in population 2, 28.90% in population 3, and 9.23% in population 4. These are typical of the allele frequency differences detected among populations. See the attached Chart. (Note: the allele frequencies in a population should add up to 1.00 (100%). In this example they do not because there are minor alleles below 15 and above 25 that are not included in this example.) Микрозаймы в Липецке заявка на кредит Липецк
Update Sept 18, 2012: Recently an article was published in the Wall Street Journal that shows new and more profound uses for ‘Junk DNA’ a term we believe is no longer appropriate. Click here to read the full article.
There have been discussions surrounding so called ‘junk DNA’. What is it really? Can DNA really be considered junk and why was this term used to describe non-coding DNA? We at ConnectMyDNA™ wanted to dispel any rumors about what this truly is.
The term ‘Junk DNA’ was introduced in 1972 by Susumu Ohno, as a provisional label for the portions of a genome sequence for which no discernible function had been identified.
According to an article published in News Medical on Junk DNA, it states that “The term is currently, however, a somewhat outdated concept.”
The ConnectMyDNA™ test is designed to provide the alleles (alternate forms of a gene) present at the loci used for human identification. The scientific community has developed methods to examine locations in the DNA (loci) that are highly polymorphic in the human population. A total of 13 unlinked loci have been adopted by the forensic community to provide sufficient information to uniquely identify an individual (CODIS). The ConnectMyDNA™ test analyzes the 13 loci and determines the alleles at each locus.
Testing is conducted in a DNA testing laboratory utilizing appropriate testing protocols including positive and negative controls. This DNA Profile is depicted by the Gene Ring™ – a graphic representation of the alleles detected at the 13 loci tested. Since the Gene Ring™ is based on the specific alleles detected at the CODIS core loci, each Gene Ring™ will be different just like each DNA Profile is different (except for identical twins).