How are we all connected?

This map shows the proportion of foreign-born to the total population by country from 1918 to 1998. Routes of voluntary migration are shown, indicating the types of migrating groups.

If so much movement has happened in just the last 100 years, imagine the changes that have occurred over the millenium.

Source: Philip’s Atlas of World History

13 CODIS Core STR Loci

The choice of the 13 marker profile is the result of scientific research going back more than a decade. It was determined in the early 1980’s that there were locations in the human genome that are highly polymorphic. These locations (loci) contain many alleles detected initially as restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and later as short tandem repeats (STRs). Using population genetic principles, it was determined that a standard set of 13 genetically independent loci was sufficient to provide suitable information regarding biological relationships and to uniquely identify an individual (except for identical twins).

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Interested in the science behind the country connection

The country match is determined using a population genetics equation known as the Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equation. It is used to calculate the frequency of occurrence of your genotype (genes present at a locus) with databases from different populations. As an example, data from four populations for the D2S1338 locus are shown. All four of the populations have alleles 15 through 25 in their database, but the frequency of occurrence of each allele differs among the populations. For example, allele 16 occurs at a frequency of 21.52% in population 1, 19.08% in population 2, 28.90% in population 3, and 9.23% in population 4. These are typical of the allele frequency differences detected among populations. See the attached Chart. (Note: the allele frequencies in a population should add up to 1.00 (100%). In this example they do not because there are minor alleles below 15 and above 25 that are not included in this example.) Микрозаймы в Липецке заявка на кредит Липецк

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